Just wanted to share an experience I recently had with panning.
Typically underwater I do not really pan or zoom I set a given focal length and then use my fins at least for wide angle
During shark dives however you are told not to move from your position so I started panning to follow the shark movement.
At longer focal lengths it was total judder nightmare (I am shooting 24p) but even at wide end it was not coming that nice moreover although the sharks are big I really wanted to fill the frame. Additional complication I had long arms and two keldan 8x however at 1 meters plus the effect was zero
So I had to come up with some alternative ideas. I first tried to create a monopod out of the 5" tripod legs however this was twisting and moving too much so I disassembled the arms and came up with this dual solution not sure what it has to be called however instead of panning the camera this very much shifts the camera and pans so the judder is none and the footage I believe very smooth
To give an idea this clip had the standard configuration it is ok but the subject is too far for the lights to have effect
This one instead has the dual pod solution
In my opinion much better. I had one challenge not having a monitor I could not really see what I was shooting so I aimed the centre of the lens to the dorsal fin and hoped for the best
Obviously if I had a 5+ inch monitor it would have been much better but I think it worked quite well