The largest most gaping detail you have failed to supply is what budget are you talking here as with out knowing it is hard to say. The only clue you give is your dome port comment which implies it is a pretty small one. If you want the highest resolution and quality of shot, be prepared for a shock.
I am sure others who know a lot better will chime in (I hope they do!!) but I would say you would be best served by making three basic decisions and sticking to that path.
1 - still or video - which is your primary focus as this will obviously lead you down different paths, especially if you are on a tight budget. You say high resolution and possibly stills. Does that mean video first and maybe the odd still if possible?
2 - Ambient light only or not.
3 - what is the minimum quality acceptable and what detail level is needed.
Once you make clear decision on what is and is not acceptable the choices will narrow themselves down and people may be able to give you more specific advice. Oh.. And did I mention budget?
I think you will struggle in the thicker ice to get the sharpness and clarity by just using ambient light, especially if the ROV is moving. As Errbrr said, a reference/scale could be a very good idea.
How long is your expedition as if it's not too long you may want to think about renting the gear as you could possibly get a lot higher end equipment if you only need it for a few weeks. Plus you could then trial some out in similar lighting conditions as see what results you get.. Far better to know if it will do what you need it to do before you leave so there is still time to change it!!
Have you contacted the Australian Antarctic Division and asked them what they used?
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